Simple, to the point, effective. Very little on the innovative side - but you're probably the best example in this entire jam of "Keep It Simple, Stupid" and of excellent, pitch-perfect scope.
In keeping with the "Simple, fun, addicting" thing you're going there, maybe some study of arcade games such as Asteroids is required - what made people keep playing them? There's a social aspect to it - leaderboards! Online or no, it'd have been that extra plus your game needs to be - honestly? Almost perfect.
I do have severe issues with the debris being almost the exact same shape, colour and opacity (being only slightly more opaque) than actual asteroids. There's something to be said about simplicity, but that's the downside - lack of clarity. I'd have suggested making the debris slightly bigger circles - so you have two circles (stars and debris - background noise), a square (asteroids - objective and/or enemy) and a triangle (ship - the player/you).