On a non-Ubuntu system (Gentoo) I was able to replicate this by doing the following:
Grab the file libstdc++6_7.2.0-1ubuntu1-16.04_amd64.deb from the repo manually.
Extract the deb by using deb2targz (or you can use the ar command)
Move the freshly extracted file ./usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6.0.24 to your deceiver directory
ln -s libstdc++.so.6.0.24 libstdc++.so.6
Execute the game by typing the following in the deceiver directory
Edit: Game launches, but gives a message about requiring the itch app.
Since we have to use the itch app, we should do the above in the itch dir for the game:
Put the libstdc++.so.6 symlink in that dir
Move the deceiver binary to deceiver.bin (or something)
mv deceiver deceiver.bin
Now make a shell script to set up the LD stuff and name it deceiver, and chmod it 755
And now it works!