It is only guaranteed to work on Ubuntu 14 or later. We just call it a Linux build because it can work on other versions of Linux.
To be sure I just tried with Ubuntu 14.04 and Ubuntu 16.10 (on another PC by the way) with the same result: As soon as I press any keyboard key on the title screen the game will just crash... I still think this is a general problem with the Linux build ;-)
Ah you're right! Whelp, it just dumps a ton of useless error codes to me. I'm assuming it's a runner issue with Game Maker Studio. So for now, we no longer support Linux. Fun. Thanks for the help in getting to a conclusion on this.