Hey Waffle! Thanks so much for playing, I'm really glad you enjoyed it.
For this game, I used Gamemaker. I know it has a bad rep (because of the optional drag-and-drop interface, which nobody really uses), but out of the many engines I am good with, this is by far the most comfortable and intuitive to use for 2D games. Very powerful if you know how to use it! (see Momodora: Reverie Under the Moonlight, one of my favourite games.)
I learned to make games from home, using the free time that I get after (UK) college. I personally think best way to learn is to pick up an engine that looks cool and play around with it, and try and figure stuff out for yourself. Get familiar with the interface and make many very very simple things until you get the hang of it. If you discover something yourself, you're way more likely to remember how to do it, and what the logic is behind it. It'll stick with you much longer than any info you'll get from a tutorial. But, tutorials are really good for very specific things where you have no idea where to start or hit a roadblock. My favourite online tutors are Shaun Spalding (for GMStudio 1/2) and Sebastian Lague (for Unity + Blender). Both of these guys have been super super helpful when stuck in specific situations.
But, there's no better way to learn than first-hand! If you enjoy and want to make 2D games, Gamemaker (or Love2D if you're super confident and also like things being free), if you want to get more serious and make 3D things, Unity is great, but that comes with the daunting challenge of learning C# and the Unity Scripting API.
Once you've got the hang of an engine, joining jams like this is fantastic. You'll learn a lot, have fun, and have an audience for your games.
But, anyway, the best way to learn something, is to go and do it! So good luck! And thanks again!