Dont really know how to begin with my art, do you make it with 1x1 px squares
And do you make a 160*144 px bg and paint in that so you can see how big it should be?
I want to make it look good on 5" phone and 24" monitor, how to achieve that?
For me I tend to start with rough lines and then fine-tune them at the pixel level.
As I'm not much of a mock-up sort of person I tend to not bother with testing the size, I just start making a tilemap straight away. Having said that, 16x16 is a nice tile size to use for this.
As for 5" phone vs 24" monitor, render your game to a 160x144 canvas/image/FBO/whatever and upscale that.