Will start this by suggesting that all art is to some extent a product of its time and so, it follows that recorded music is going to be representative of when it was made, to some extent . But are there some albums that sound more dated than others?
For me, recorded jazz of the 1950s and early 1960s, such as on Blue note / Verve and Impulse labels sounds less affected by passing time than most pop or rock from the '50s to the 21st century. A lot of music from the 80s (especially the mid '80s) seems to me particularly of its time, When it gets past a certain point in the 2000s I personally start losing the ability to discern (and would probably find it more difficult to tell recordings made from 2007 to 2016 time period - but am sure there are people who could).
Of course none of this is meant to suggest that if a record sounds old then it denotes a lack of quality. I think Pet Sounds, for example, sounds very 1960s but I love it.