You could try to dual-boot the Chromebook by using Crouton, which if you search it up should pop up multiple guides on how to do so.
The alternative would be to download Termux through the Google Play Store on the Chromebook and use the pkg install proot command to run Chroot, and theoretically run Mindustry. This is only my theory though, as I haven't tested it.
Neither of these will work if you're currently on a school Chromebook, since those have pretty much everything restricted.
Or, you know, get it on your phone or some other computer.