Fixed it! As it turns out, I was using the wrong version of the Bandit Tooltip mod. I had the version designed for vanilla Strive, because I installed it before deciding to use Aric's Expansion. Although, I'm not sure why the sandbox save I used to troubleshoot had the same issue, even though I had uninstalled the tooltip mod beforehand.
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For some reason, combat is completely broken for me. When I enter combat, none of the icons appear (Block, Escape, Mind read, etc.) except for the basic attack, and when I click the attack icon, my cursor changes like I've selected it, but I can't actually attack anything. I am using 2 other mods, but I removed them and tried again in a sandbox playthrough and got the same issue.