For anyone on Itch.IO wondering, here's the Gamejolt comment: https://gamejolt.com/x/permalink/comment/2672468
Anyway, to answer your question, yes and no. I think I have discovered what the problem is, and I think I have found a way to replicate the problem on the official Android emulator.
The problem appears to be the Android devices that are not working do not support the full OpenGL ES 3.0 spec. This is a bit of a problem because I am using a linear color space in Unity so the post process effects work correctly, which requires OpenGL ES 3.0. I can compile for OpenGL ES 2.0, which should fix the problem, but I have to switch to gamma color space, meaning not only do the post process effects not work correctly, but also the game is very dark and hard to play.
I may have some solutions, but it will take a bit to work through them, especially with the holidays coming up. I'm shooting to release a bug fix version 0.5.1, sometime late December to early January. Please try to be patient until then 😉
Thanks for inquiring, and happy holidays! 🎉